Mocking HttpRequest Body Content When Testing Azure Function HTTP Trigger Functions

When creating Azure Functions that are triggered by an HTTP request, you may want to write unit tests for the function Run method. These unit tests can be executed outside of the Azure Functions runtime, just like testing regular methods.

If your HTTP-triggered function takes as the function input an HttpRequest (as opposed to an automatically JSON-deserialized class) you may need to provide request data in your test.

As an example, consider the following code snippet that defines an HTTP-triggered function.

[FunctionName("Portfolio")]
[return: Queue("deposit-requests")]
public static async Task<DepositRequest> Run(
    [HttpTrigger(AuthorizationLevel.Function, "post", Route = "portfolio/{investorId}")]HttpRequest req,
    [Table("Portfolio", InvestorType.Individual, "{investorId}")] Investor investor,
    string investorId,
    ILogger log)
{
    log.LogInformation($"C# HTTP trigger function processed a request.");

    string requestBody = await new StreamReader(req.Body).ReadToEndAsync();

    log.LogInformation($"Request body: {requestBody}");

    var deposit = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject<Deposit>(requestBody);

    // etc.
}

If the  the preceding code is executed in a test, some content needs to be provided to be used when accessing req.Body. To do this using Moq a mock HttpRequest can be created that returns a specified Stream instance for req.Body.

If you want to create a request body that contains a JSON payload, you can use the following helper method in your tests:

private static Mock<HttpRequest> CreateMockRequest(object body)
{            
    var ms = new MemoryStream();
    var sw = new StreamWriter(ms);

    var json = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(body);

    sw.Write(json);
    sw.Flush();

    ms.Position = 0;

    var mockRequest = new Mock<HttpRequest>();
    mockRequest.Setup(x => x.Body).Returns(ms);

    return mockRequest;
}

As an example of using this method in a test:

[Fact]
public async Task ReturnCorrectDepositInformation()
{
    var deposit = new Deposit { Amount = 42 };
    var investor = new Investor { };

    Mock<HttpRequest> mockRequest = CreateMockRequest(deposit);

    DepositRequest result = await Portfolio.Run(mockRequest.Object, investor, "42", new Mock<ILogger>().Object);

    Assert.Equal(42, result.Amount);
    Assert.Same(investor, result.Investor);
}

When the preceding test is run, the function run method will get the contents of the memory stream that contains the JSON.

To learn more about using Moq to create/configure/use mock objects check out my Mocking in .NET Core Unit Tests with Moq: Getting Started Pluralsight course. or to learn more about MemoryStream and how to work with streams in C# check out my Working with Files and Streams course.

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Remote Debugging Azure Functions V2 "The breakpoint will not currently be hit. No symbols have been loaded for this document"

Sometimes it can be tricky to attach the Visual Studio debugger to a deployed Azure Functions app. For example if you use Cloud Explorer you can right click on the deployed Azure Function and choose Attach Debugger as the following screenshot shows:

Using Cloud Explorer to debug an Azure Function

While this may seem to work at first, you may experience a problem with your breakpoints actually being hit when function app code is executing with the message “The breakpoint will not currently be hit. No symbols have been loaded for this document”.

The breakpoint will not currently be hit. No symbols have been loaded for this document

As an alternative to attaching via Cloud Explorer, you can try the following approach:

1 Log in to Azure Portal and navigate to your deployed function app.

2 Download the publish profile

Downloading publish profile for Azure Function app

3 Open the downloaded file

Make a note of the userName, userPWD and destinationAppUrl values.

4 Attach Visual Studio Debugger to Azure Function App

  1. Make sure your function app project is open in Visual Studio
  2. Make sure that you have deployed a debug version of the function app to Azure
  3. On the Debug menu choose Attach to Process..
  4. For the Attach to value, click the Select.. button and un-tick everything except Managed (CoreCLR) code
  5. In the Connection target enter the  destinationAppUrl (without the preceding http) followed by :4022 – for example: investfunctionappdemotest.azurewebsites.net:4022 – and hit Enter
  6. You should now see an Enter Your Credentials popup box, use the userName and userPWD from step 3 and click Ok
  7. Wait a few seconds for Visual Studio to do its thing
  8. Click the w3wp.exe process and the click the Attach button (see screenshot below) Be patient after clicking as it may take quite a while for all the debug symbols to load.

Attaching to the Azure Functions w3wp.exe process

5 Set your breakpoints as desired

Breakpoint set in function run method

6 Invoke your function code and you should see your breakpoint hit

Once again this may take a while so be patient, you may also see “a remote operation is taking longer than expected”.

Azure Function breakpoint being hit in Visual Studio

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Azure Functions Dependency Injection with Autofac

This post refers specifically to Azure Function V2.

If you want to write automated tests for Azure Functions methods and want to be able to control dependencies (e.g. to inject mock versions of things) you can set up dependency injection.

One way to do this is to install the AzureFunctions.Autofac NuGet package into your functions project.

Once installed, this package allows you to inject dependencies into your function methods at runtime.

Step 1: Create DI Mappings

The first step (after package installation) is to create a class that configures the dependencies. As an example suppose there was a function method that needed to make use of an implementation of an IInvestementAllocator. The following class can be added to the functions project:

using Autofac;
using AzureFunctions.Autofac.Configuration;

namespace InvestFunctionApp
{
    public class DIConfig
    {
        public DIConfig(string functionName)
        {
            DependencyInjection.Initialize(builder =>
            {
                builder.RegisterType<NaiveInvestementAllocator>().As<IInvestementAllocator>(); // Naive

            }, functionName);
        }
    }
}

In the preceding code, a constructor is defined that receives the name of the function that’s being injected into. Inside the constructor, types can be registered for dependency injection. In the preceding code the IInvestementAllocator interface is being mapped to the concrete class NaiveInvestementAllocator.

Step 2: Decorate Function Method Parameters

Now the DI registrations have been configured, the registered types can be injected in function methods. To do this the [Inject] attribute is applied to one or more parameters as the following code demonstrates:

[FunctionName("CalculatePortfolioAllocation")]
public static void Run(
    [QueueTrigger("deposit-requests")]DepositRequest depositRequest,
    [Inject] IInvestementAllocator investementAllocator,
    ILogger log)
    {
        log.LogInformation($"C# Queue trigger function processed: {depositRequest}");

        InvestementAllocation r = investementAllocator.Calculate(depositRequest.Amount, depositRequest.Investor);
    }

Notice in the preceding code the [Inject] attribute is applied to the IInvestementAllocator investementAllocator parameter. This IInvestementAllocator is the same interface that was registered earlier in the DIConfig class.

Step 3: Select DI Configuration

The final step to make all this work is to add an attribute to the class that contains the function method (that uses [Inject]). The attribute used is the DependencyInjectionConfig attribute that takes the type containing the DI configuration as a parameter, for example: [DependencyInjectionConfig(typeof(DIConfig))]

The full function code is as follows:

using AzureFunctions.Autofac;
using Microsoft.Azure.WebJobs;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;

namespace InvestFunctionApp
{
    [DependencyInjectionConfig(typeof(DIConfig))]
    public static class CalculatePortfolioAllocation
    {
        [FunctionName("CalculatePortfolioAllocation")]
        public static void Run(
            [QueueTrigger("deposit-requests")]DepositRequest depositRequest,
            [Inject] IInvestementAllocator investementAllocator,
            ILogger log)
        {
            log.LogInformation($"C# Queue trigger function processed: {depositRequest}");

            InvestementAllocation r = investementAllocator.Calculate(depositRequest.Amount, depositRequest.Investor);
        }
    }
}

At runtime, when the CalculatePortfolioAllocation runs, an instance of an NaiveInvestementAllocator will be supplied to the function.

The library also supports features such as named dependencies and multiple DI configurations, to read more check out GitHub.

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Setting Up Mock ref Return Values in Moq

I recently received a message related to my Mocking in .NET Core Unit Tests with Moq: Getting Started Pluralsight course asking how to set the values of ref parameters.

As a (somewhat contrived) example, consider the following code:

public interface IParser
{
    bool TryParse(string value, ref int output);
}

public class Thing
{
    private readonly IParser _parser;

    public Thing(IParser parser)
    {
        _parser = parser;
    }

    public string ConvertStringIntToHex(string number)
    {
        int i = 0;

        if (_parser.TryParse(number, ref i))
        {
            return i.ToString("X");
        }

        throw new ArgumentException("The value supplied cannot be parsed into an int.", nameof(number));
    }
}

The Thing class requires an IParser to be able to work. In a test, a mocked version of an IParser can be created by Moq as the following initial test demonstrates:

[Fact]
public void ReturnHex_Fail_NoSetup()
{
    var mockParser = new Mock<IParser>();

    var sut = new Thing(mockParser.Object);

    var result = sut.ConvertStringIntToHex("255"); // fails with ArgumentException

    Assert.Equal("FF", result);
}

The preceding test will fail however because the mocked TryParse has not been configured correctly, for example specifying that the method should return true.

The following modified test attempts to fix this:

[Fact]
public void ReturnHex_Fail_NoRefValueSetup()
{
    var mockParser = new Mock<IParser>();
    mockParser.Setup(x => x.TryParse(It.IsAny<string>(), ref It.Ref<int>.IsAny))
              .Returns(true);

    var sut = new Thing(mockParser.Object);

    var result = sut.ConvertStringIntToHex("255");

    Assert.Equal("FF", result); // Fails, actual result == 0
}

In the preceding code, the return value is being set, but nowhere is the ref int output “return value” being configured.

In the following test the Callback method is used to set the ref value. To be able to do this, a delegate must first be defined that matches the signature of the mocked method that contains the ref parameter. Once this delegate is defined it can be used in the Callback method as the following code demonstrates:

// Define a delegate that can be used to set the ref value in the mocked TryParse method 
delegate void MockTryParseCallback(string number, ref int output);

[Fact]
public void ReturnHex()
{
    var mockParser = new Mock<IParser>();
    mockParser.Setup(x => x.TryParse("255", ref It.Ref<int>.IsAny)) // When the TryParse method is called with 255
              .Callback(new MockTryParseCallback((string s, ref int output) => output = 255)) // Execute callback delegate and set the ref value
              .Returns(true); // Return true as the result of the TryParse method

    var sut = new Thing(mockParser.Object);

    var result = sut.ConvertStringIntToHex("255");

    Assert.Equal("FF", result);
}

If you’ve never used Moq or want to learn more about it check out the official Moq quickstart  or head over to my Pluralsight course.

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Unit Testing C# File Access Code with System.IO.Abstractions

It can be difficult  to write unit tests for code that accesses the file system.

It’s possible to write integration tests that read in an actual file from the file system, do some processing, and check the resultant output file (or result) for correctness. There are a number of potential problems with these types of integration tests including the potential for them to more run slowly (real IO access overheads), additional test file management/setup code, etc. (this does not mean that some integration tests wouldn’t be useful however).

The System.IO.Abstractions NuGet package can help to make file access code more testable. This package provides a layer of abstraction over the file system that is API-compatible with existing code.

Take the following code as an example:

using System.IO;
namespace ConsoleApp1
{
    public class FileProcessorNotTestable
    {
        public void ConvertFirstLineToUpper(string inputFilePath)
        {
            string outputFilePath = Path.ChangeExtension(inputFilePath, ".out.txt");

            using (StreamReader inputReader = File.OpenText(inputFilePath))
            using (StreamWriter outputWriter = File.CreateText(outputFilePath))
            {
                bool isFirstLine = true;

                while (!inputReader.EndOfStream)
                {
                    string line = inputReader.ReadLine();

                    if (isFirstLine)
                    {
                        line = line.ToUpperInvariant();
                        isFirstLine = false;
                    }

                    outputWriter.WriteLine(line);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

The preceding code opens a text file, and writes it to a new output file, but with the first line converted to uppercase.

This class is not easy to unit test however, it is tightly coupled to the physical file system with the calls to File.OpenText and File.CreateText.

Once the System.IO.Abstractions NuGet package is installed, the class can be refactored as follows:

using System.IO;
using System.IO.Abstractions;

namespace ConsoleApp1
{
    public class FileProcessorTestable
    {
        private readonly IFileSystem _fileSystem;

        public FileProcessorTestable() : this (new FileSystem()) {}

        public FileProcessorTestable(IFileSystem fileSystem)
        {
            _fileSystem = fileSystem;
        }

        public void ConvertFirstLineToUpper(string inputFilePath)
        {
            string outputFilePath = Path.ChangeExtension(inputFilePath, ".out.txt");

            using (StreamReader inputReader = _fileSystem.File.OpenText(inputFilePath))
            using (StreamWriter outputWriter = _fileSystem.File.CreateText(outputFilePath))
            {
                bool isFirstLine = true;

                while (!inputReader.EndOfStream)
                {
                    string line = inputReader.ReadLine();

                    if (isFirstLine)
                    {
                        line = line.ToUpperInvariant();
                        isFirstLine = false;
                    }

                    outputWriter.WriteLine(line);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

The key things to notice in the preceding code is the ability to pass in an IFileSystem as a constructor parameter. The calls to File.OpenText and File.CreateText are now redirected to _fileSystem.File.OpenText and _fileSystem.File.CreateText  respectively.

If the parameterless constructor is used (e.g. in production at runtime) an instance of FileSystem will be used, however at test time, a mock IFileSystem can be supplied.

Handily, the System.IO.Abstractions.TestingHelpers NuGet package provides a pre-built mock file system that can be used in unit tests, as the following simple test demonstrates:

using System.IO.Abstractions.TestingHelpers;
using Xunit;

namespace XUnitTestProject1
{
    public class FileProcessorTestableShould
    {
        [Fact]
        public void ConvertFirstLine()
        {
            var mockFileSystem = new MockFileSystem();

            var mockInputFile = new MockFileData("line1\nline2\nline3");

            mockFileSystem.AddFile(@"C:\temp\in.txt", mockInputFile);

            var sut = new FileProcessorTestable(mockFileSystem);
            sut.ConvertFirstLineToUpper(@"C:\temp\in.txt");

            MockFileData mockOutputFile = mockFileSystem.GetFile(@"C:\temp\in.out.txt");

            string[] outputLines = mockOutputFile.TextContents.SplitLines();

            Assert.Equal("LINE1", outputLines[0]);
            Assert.Equal("line2", outputLines[1]);
            Assert.Equal("line3", outputLines[2]);
        }
    }
}

To see this in action or to learn more about file access, check out my Working with Files and Streams in C# Pluralsight course.

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Testing for Thrown Exceptions in MSTest V2

In previous posts we looked at testing for thrown exceptions in xUnit.net and NUnit. In this post we’re going to see how to test in MSTest V2.

As with the previous posts, the class being tested is as follows:

public class TemperatureSensor
{
    bool _isInitialized;

    public void Initialize()
    {
        // Initialize hardware interface
        _isInitialized = true;
    }

    public int ReadCurrentTemperature()
    {
        if (!_isInitialized)
        {
            throw new InvalidOperationException("Cannot read temperature before initializing.");
        }

        // Read hardware temp
        return 42; // Simulate for demo code purposes
    }
}

And the first test to check the normal execution:

[TestMethod]
public void ReadTemperature()
{
    var sut = new TemperatureSensor();

    sut.Initialize();

    var temperature = sut.ReadCurrentTemperature();

    Assert.AreEqual(42, temperature);
}

Next, a test can be written to check that the expected exception is thrown:

[TestMethod]
public void ErrorIfReadingBeforeInitialized()
{
    var sut = new TemperatureSensor();

    Assert.ThrowsException<InvalidOperationException>(() => sut.ReadCurrentTemperature());
}

The preceding code using the Assert.ThrowsException method, this method takes the type of the expected exception as the generic type parameter (in this case InvalidOperationException). As the method parameter an action/function can be specified – this is the code that is supposed to cause the exception to be thrown.

The thrown exception can also be captured if you need to test the exception property values:

[TestMethod]
public void ErrorIfReadingBeforeInitialized_CaptureExDemo()
{
    var sut = new TemperatureSensor();

    var ex = Assert.ThrowsException<InvalidOperationException>(() => sut.ReadCurrentTemperature());

    Assert.AreEqual("Cannot read temperature before initializing.", ex.Message);
}

To learn more about using exceptions to handle errors in C#, check out my Error Handling in C# with Exceptions Pluralsight course or to learn more about MS Test V2 check out my Automated Testing with MSTest V2 Pluralsight course.

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Testing for Thrown Exceptions in NUnit

In a previous post, testing for thrown exceptions using xUnit.net was demonstrated. In this post we’ll see how to do the same with NUnit.

Once again the class being tested is as follows:

public class TemperatureSensor
{
    bool _isInitialized;

    public void Initialize()
    {
        // Initialize hardware interface
        _isInitialized = true;
    }

    public int ReadCurrentTemperature()
    {
        if (!_isInitialized)
        {
            throw new InvalidOperationException("Cannot read temperature before initializing.");
        }

        // Read hardware temp
        return 42; // Simulate for demo code purposes
    }
}

The first test can be to test the happy path:

[Test]
public void ReadTemperature()
{
    var sut = new TemperatureSensor();

    sut.Initialize();

    var temperature = sut.ReadCurrentTemperature();

    Assert.AreEqual(42, temperature);
}

Next, a test can be written to check that the expected exception is thrown:

[Test]
public void ErrorIfReadingBeforeInitialized()
{
    var sut = new TemperatureSensor();

    Assert.Throws<InvalidOperationException>(() => sut.ReadCurrentTemperature());
}

Notice in the preceding code that any InvalidOperationException thrown will pass the test. To ensure that the thrown exception is correct, it can be captured and further asserts performed against it:

[Test]
public void ErrorIfReadingBeforeInitialized_CaptureExDemo()
{
    var sut = new TemperatureSensor();

    var ex = Assert.Throws<InvalidOperationException>(() => sut.ReadCurrentTemperature());

    Assert.AreEqual("Cannot read temperature before initializing.", ex.Message);
    // or:
    Assert.That(ex.Message, Is.EqualTo("Cannot read temperature before initializing."));
}

There’s also other ways to assert against expected exceptions such as the following:

Assert.Throws(Is.TypeOf<InvalidOperationException>()
                .And.Message.EqualTo("Cannot read temperature before initializing."), 
              () => sut.ReadCurrentTemperature());

There’s some personal preference involved when choosing a style, for example the preceding code could be considered more verbose by some and may muddle the distinction between the Act and Assert phases of a test.

To learn more about using exceptions to handle errors in C#, check out my Error Handling in C# with Exceptions Pluralsight course.

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Software Development Wheel

An example of a rendered software development wheel showing what areas are in need of attention.

In business/personal coaching there is an idea of a “wheel of life”. The idea is that you evaluate different dimensions of your life and plot them on a wheel. Ideally the wheel should be balanced (and as large) as possible. If the wheel is crooked, you know what areas need to be improved to create a better wheel that turns more easily. When the wheel turns more easily, you get better results.

In a similar vein, the Software Development Wheel allows you to evaluate your overall software development  experience.

The tool below can be used by individual developers, the software development team as a whole, or team leaders/managers.

To generate your own wheel fill out the form below.

Each dimension is rated from 1 (“very little or none”) to 5 (“awesome, doing everything possible”) and descriptions for the dimensions are included below.

Be sure to share this page with your fellow developers, team leaders, and management as it’s a great way to start a conversation about how to improve things.

More than one person looking at code before it is released. For example: pair programming, code reviews mob programming, etc.

Tests than can be (and are) run periodically to check that code is working as expected. For example: unit tests, integrations tests, UI tests, performance tests, security tests, etc.

Code from developers is regularly combined together to check that it all works together. Usually automated with a build system/server such as TeamCity, Jenkins, VSTS, etc.

Codebase and development teams evolve over time. For example: incremental development, shorter feedback loops, self-organizing/cross-functional teams, etc.

Code that is easier to change. For example: readable code, good object oriented practices (SOLID), YAGNI, use of appropriate design patterns, well-named variables/functions/etc.

Management exists primarily to remove things that stop/slow down the team delivering the software. For example: shielding the team from management politics, empowering individuals and teams to make decisions, caring about people, providing training, etc.

The team has the best tools that are available to do their work. For example, powerful hardware, latest versions of IDEs, multiple monitors, etc.

Comfortable work environment. Includes: comfortable ergonomic chairs/desks, standing desks, peace and quiet, air conditioning, plants, cleanliness, etc.

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Lifelike Test Data Generation with Bogus

Bogus is a lovely library from Brian Chavez to use in automated tests to automatically generate test data of different kinds.

As an example suppose the following class is involved in a unit test:

public class Review
{
    public int Id { get; set; }
    public string Title { get; set; }
    public string Body { get; set; }
    public int Rating { get; set; }
    public DateTimeOffset Created { get; set; }

    public override string ToString()
    {
        return $"{Id} '{Title}'";
    }
}

In a test, a Review instance may need properties populating with values. This could be done manually, for example to check the ToString() implementation:

[Fact]
public void BeRepresentedAsAString()
{
    var sut = new Review
    {
        Id = 42,
        Title = "blah blah"
    };

    Assert.Equal("42 'blah blah'", sut.ToString());
}

Notice in the preceding test, the actual values and title don’t really matter, only the fact that they’re joined as part of the ToString() call. In this example the values for Id and Title could be considered anonymous variable / values in that we don’t really care about them.

The following test uses the Bogus NuGet package and uses its non-fluent facade syntax:

[Fact]
public void BeRepresentedAsAString_BogusFacadeSyntax()
{
    var faker = new Faker("en"); // default en

    var sut = new Review
    {
        Id = faker.Random.Number(),
        Title = faker.Random.String()
    };

    Assert.Equal($"{sut.Id} '{sut.Title}'", sut.ToString());
}

Bogus also has a powerful fluent syntax to define what a test object will look like. To use the fluent version, a Faker<T> instance is created where T is the test object to be configured and created, for example:

[Fact]
public void BeRepresentedAsAString_BogusFluentSyntax()
{
    var reviewFaker = new Faker<Review>()
        .RuleFor(x => x.Id, f => f.Random.Number(1, 10))
        .RuleFor(x => x.Title, f => f.Lorem.Sentence());

    var sut = reviewFaker.Generate(); 

    Assert.Equal($"{sut.Id} '{sut.Title}'", sut.ToString());
}

The first argument to the RuleFor() methods allows the property of the Review object to be selected and the second argument specifies how the property value should be generated. There is a huge range of test data types supported. In the preceding code the Random API is used as well as the Lorem API.

Some examples of the types of auto generated data include:

  • Addresses: ZipCode, City, Country, Latitude, etc.
  • Commerce: Department name, ProductName, ProductAdjective, Price, etc.
  • Company: CompanyName, CatchPhrase, Bs, etc.
  • Date: Past, Soon, Between, etc.
  • Finance: Account number, TransactionType, Currency, CreditCardNumber, etc.
  • Image URL: Random image, Animals image, Nature image, etc.
  • Internet: Email, DomainName, Ipv6, Password, etc.
  • Lorem: single word, Words, Sentence, Paragraphs, etc.
  • Name: FirstName, LastName, etc.
  • Rant: Random user review, etc.
  • System: FileName, MimeType, FileExt, etc.

Some of the random generated values are quite entertaining, for example Rant.Review() may produce "My co-worker Fate has one of these. He says it looks tall."; Company.Bs() may produce "transition cross-media users", and Company.CatchPhrase() may produce "Face to face object-oriented focus group".

Bogus configuration is quite powerful and allows fairly complex setup as the following code demonstrates:

[Fact]
public void CalculateAverageRatingWhenMultipleReviews()
{
    int rating = 0;

    var reviewFaker = new Faker<Review>()
        .RuleFor(x => x.Id, f => f.Random.Number(1, 10))
        .RuleFor(x => x.Rating, f => rating++);

    var productFaker = new Faker<Product>()
        .RuleFor(x => x.PricePerUnit, f => f.Finance.Amount())
        .RuleFor(x => x.Description, f => f.WaffleText(3))
        .FinishWith((f, x) =>
            {
                reviewFaker.Generate(3).ForEach(r => x.Reviews.Add(r));
            });

    var sut = productFaker.Generate();

    Assert.Equal(1, sut.AverageRating); // (0 + 1 + 2) / 3
}

The WaffleText() API is provided by one of the extensions to Bogus (WaffleGenerator.Bogus) that produces inane looking waffle text such as the following:

The Quality Of Hypothetical Aesthetic

"The parallel personal hardware cannot explain all the problems in maximizing the efficacy of any fundamental dichotomies of the logical psychic principle. Generally the requirements of unequivocal reciprocal individuality is strictly significant. On the other hand the characteristic organizational change reinforces the weaknesses in the evolution of metaphysical terminology over a given time limit. The objective of the explicit heuristic discordance is to delineate the truly global on-going flexibility or the preliminary qualification limit. A priority should be established based on a combination of functional baseline and inevitability of amelioration The Quality Of Hypothetical Aesthetic"

 - Michael Stringer in The Journal of the Proactive Directive Dichotomy (20174U)

structure plan.

To make the main points more explicit, it is fair to say that;
  * the value of the optical continuous reconstruction is reciprocated by what should be termed the sanctioned major issue.
  * The core drivers poses problems and challenges for both the heuristic non-referent spirituality and any discrete or Philosophical configuration mode.
  * an anticipation of the effects of any interpersonal fragmentation reinforces the weaknesses in the explicit deterministic service. This may be due to a lack of a doctrine of the interpersonal quality..
  * any significant enhancements in the strategic plan probably expresses the strategic personal theme. This trend may dissipate due to the personal milieu.

 firm assumptions about ideal major monologism evinces the universe of attitude.

The Flexible Implicit Aspiration.

Within current constraints on manpower resources, any consideration of the lessons learnt can fully utilize what should be termed the two-phase multi-media program.

For example, the assertion of the importance of the integration of doctrine of the prime remediation with strategic initiatives cannot be shown to be relevant. This is in contrast to the strategic fit.

To learn more about Bogus head over to the documentation.

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Testing for Thrown Exceptions in xUnit.net

When writing tests it is sometimes useful to check that the correct exceptions are thrown at the expected time.

When using xUnit.net there are a number of ways to accomplish this.

As an example consider the following simple class:

public class TemperatureSensor
{
    bool _isInitialized;

    public void Initialize()
    {
        // Initialize hardware interface
        _isInitialized = true;
    }

    public int ReadCurrentTemperature()
    {
        if (!_isInitialized)
        {
            throw new InvalidOperationException("Cannot read temperature before initializing.");
        }

        // Read hardware temp
        return 42; // Simulate for demo code purposes
    }        
}

The first test we could write against the preceding class is to check the “happy path”:

[Fact]
public void ReadTemperature()
{
    var sut = new TemperatureSensor();

    sut.Initialize();

    var temperature = sut.ReadCurrentTemperature();

    Assert.Equal(42, temperature);
}

Next a test could be written to check that if the temperature is read before initializing the sensor, an exception of type InvalidOperationException is thrown. To do this the xUnit.net Assert.Throws method can be used. When using this method the generic type parameter indicates the type of expected exception and the method parameter takes an action that should cause this exception to be thrown, for example:

[Fact]
public void ErrorIfReadingBeforeInitialized()
{
    var sut = new TemperatureSensor();

    Assert.Throws<InvalidOperationException>(() => sut.ReadCurrentTemperature());
}

In the preceding test, if an InvalidOperationException is not thrown when the ReadCurrentTemperature method is called the test will fail.

The thrown exception can also be captured in a variable to make further asserts against the exception property values, for example:

[Fact]
public void ErrorIfReadingBeforeInitialized_CaptureExDemo()
{
    var sut = new TemperatureSensor();

    var ex = Assert.Throws<InvalidOperationException>(() => sut.ReadCurrentTemperature());

    Assert.Equal("Cannot read temperature before initializing.", ex.Message);
}

The Assert.Throws method expects the exact type of exception and not derived exceptions. In the case where you want to also allow derived exceptions, the Assert.ThrowsAny method can be used.

Similar exception testing features also exist in MSTest and NUnit frameworks.

To learn more about using exceptions to handle errors in C#, check out my Error Handling in C# with Exceptions Pluralsight course.

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